Solingen 93

Domestic Violence and Abuse

Disability History Video Exhibit Timeline


3500 BC– the Rig-Veda, an
ancient sacred poem of India, is said to be the first
written record of prosthesis. 1552 BC– an obscure document called
the Therapeutic Papyrus of Thebes marks the first recorded
reference to mental retardation. 470 to 399 BC– the
philosopher Socrates challenges Athenian
citizens to consider what constitutes a good quality of life. 355 BC– Aristotle
said those, quote, “born deaf become senseless and
incapable of reason,” unquote. 335 to 280 BC– the
physician Herophilus founds one of the earliest
medical schools in Alexandria. He finds connections between
brain defects and disability. 6 BC to 30 AD– the
life of Jesus Christ. 130 to 200 AD– the Greek
physician and scholar Galen recognizing the brain as the
central organ of the nervous system and the seat of intellect. 476 to 1000 AD– the
Dark Ages– a time marked by indifference, neglect, and fear. 787 AD– Datheus,
archbishop of Milan, founds the first asylum
for abandoned infants. Quote, “As soon as the child is
exposed at the door of the church, it will be received in
the hospital and confided to the care of those who will
be paid to look after them.” 980 to 1037– the physician
Avicenna proposes treatment for meningitis and
hydrocephalus and defines levels of intellectual functioning. 1403– St. Mary of Bethlehem,
more well known as “Bedlam,” begins to receive mental
patients in England. 1500– Girolamo
Cardano– 1501 to 1576– is the first position to recognize
the ability of the deaf to reason. 1452 to 1519– Leonardo da Vinci,
Italian artistic and scientific genius, studies anatomy and
the functions of the brain. 1493 to 1541–
Paracelsus distinguishes between mental illness
and mental retardation. 1547– Bedlam is declared a
hospital exclusively for the insane. 1536 to 1614– Felix Platter
studies “mental alienation–” a precursor to psychiatry that
includes both mental retardation and mental illness. 1601– Poor Laws are enacted
in Elizabethan England. 1620– the first book on teaching
sign language to Deaf people, containing a manual alphabet, is
published by Juan Pablo DeBonet. 1752– First hospital
in the American colonies for the treatment of
people with mental illness opens in Pennsylvania
in a private home. The patients are moved to the Pine
Street Hospital in Philadelphia after it opens in 1756. 1758 to 1828– Franz Joseph Gall,
a highly respected brain anatomist, identifies 39 distinct areas
of the brain associated with intellectual functions. 1798– a system of
marine hospitals is established to care for sailors who
are sick or have become disabled. 1755– the first free
school for the Deaf opens in Paris by Abbe
Charles de L’Epee. 1755– Samuel Heinicke establishes
the first oral school for the deaf in the world in Germany. 1760– Thomas Braidwood
opens the first school for the Deaf in England. 1768– the Public
Hospital for Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds
opens in Williamsburg, Virginia. Its first patient
is Zechariah Mallory of Hanover County, Virginia. 1776– US Declaration
of Independence. 1777– Arnoldi, a German pastor,
believes education of the deaf should begin as early as four years. 1782 to 1840– Jean-Etienne
Dominique Esquirol divides mental retardation into
two levels– idiocy and imbecility. 1780s– Valentine Hauy
develops embossed print and claims that blind
persons can be taught. 1784– Abba Silvestri opens the
first school for the Deaf in Italy. 1788– US Constitution. 1790– in Paris, Pinel unshackles
people with mental illness. 1791– the US Bill
of Rights is adopted. 1792– the French Revolution
recognizes the innate dignity and worth of all human beings. 1797– Maryland Hospital
in Baltimore City is established as,
quote, “a hospital for the relief of
indigent sick persons, and for the reception and
care of lunatics,” unquote. 1798– a system of
marine hospitals is established to care for sailors who
are sick or have become disabled. 1799– “Victor, the Wild
Child,” is discovered in the woods of Aveyron, France. 1801– Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard
publishes De l’Education d’un Homme Sauvage, which describes
his efforts to educate Victor, the Wild Boy of Aveyron. 1805– Rush’s Medical
Inquiries and Observations is the first modern attempt
to explain mental disorders. 1809– Louis Braille is born
at Coupvray, near Paris. At three years of age, an accident
deprives him of his sight, and in 1819, he is sent to
the Paris Blind School which was originated by Valentin Hauy. 1815– Thomas H. Gallaudet
departs for Europe to seek methods to teach the Deaf. 1816– Laurent Clerc,
a Deaf French man, returns to America with
Thomas H. Gallaudet. 1817– Connecticut Asylum for
the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons,
the first permanent school for the deaf in America,
opens in Hartford on April 15. 1822– American School for the
Deaf adds vocational training to the curriculum. 1824– the Connecticut
Retreat for the Insane– later renamed the Hartford
Retreat and now named the Institute for Living–
admits its first patients. 1825– Louis Braille learns
of the military method of communicating at night through
the use of 12 raised dots on paper. In 1829, he simplifies the code
to a six-dot system for use by the blind. Samuel Gridley Howe opens the New
England Asylum for the Blind– later renamed the Perkins School
for the Blind– in Boston. 1837– Panic of 1837. Over 600 banks fail by
the end of the year. 1838– the Ohio Lunatic
Asylum in Columbus admits its first patients from the
Commercial Hospital and Lunatic Asylum of Cincinnati. In 1840– Edward Seguin
is appointed head teacher of a class of idiot children at
the Salpetriere in Paris, France. At this time, he starts a
private school in his home. 1841– Dorothea Dix advocates to
place persons with mental illness in hospitals for treatment. 1842– a school for idiots
opens in the Bicetre with Edward Seguin as teacher. 1842– PT Barnum opens the American
Museum in New York and exhibits “Freaks.” 1843– Edward Seguin is
fired from the Bicetre, accused of “abominable” practices. 1846– EF Backus in New York
introduces the first legislation to provide for separate
treatment for the feeble-minded. 1847– Thomas S. Kirkbride publishes
On the Construction, Organization, and General Arrangements of
Hospitals for the Insane. Samuel Gridley Howe
admits first idiot pupil to his school in South Boston. 1848– Dorothea Dix appeals to the
30th Congress for federal funding of state facilities for persons with
mental illness, mental retardation, and epilepsy. Hervey B. Wilbur
opens a private school for idiots in Barre, Massachusetts. 1851– Thomas Hopkins
Gallaudet dies on September 10. 1852– a school for
“feeble-minded youth” opens in Germantown, Pennsylvania. 1855– a school for “feeble-minded
youth” opens in Albany, New York. 1857– a school for “feeble-minded
youth” opens in Columbus, Ohio 1858– Isaac Kerlin
publishes The Mind Unveiled– or, A Brief History of
Twenty-two Imbecile Children. 1859– Charles Darwin publishes
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection,
or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. 1860– the Braille system
is introduced to America and is taught with some success at
the St. Louis School for the Blind. 1860s– facility for the
feeble-minded opens in Kentucky. 1861– the American Civil
War– 1861 to 1865– brings 30,000 amputations
in the Union Army alone. 1863– Panic of 1857 creates
pressure for facilities to keep students in training school. Population at the Pennsylvania
Training School is 175. 1865– New York adopts
the “Willard Plan,” which includes separate facilities
for chronic cases in an attempt to reduce costs. 1866– Edward Seguin
publishes Idiocy. The same year, he publicly argues
against large institutions. Samuel Gridley Howe speaks against
building large institutions in a keynote address
at Batavia, New York. St. Peter State
Hospital– later named the St. Peter Regional
Treatment Center– admits its first mental
patients in Minnesota. 1866– a National Home for disabled
Union soldiers is established. 1867– Horatio Alger
publishes Ragged Dick, or Street Life in New York,
suggesting that any boy in America can rise to success
if he is intelligent. 1868– 14th Amendment is passed,
providing equal protection of laws and due process. 1869– Frances Galton
publishes Hereditary Genius. Facility for the feeble-minded
opens on Randall’s Island in New York City. 1870 to 1952– Maria
Montessori, influenced by Edward Seguin’s teaching
methods, becomes a pioneer in teaching children with
and without disabilities. 1871– population at the
Pennsylvania Training School reaches 185. 1872– Alexander Graham Bell
opens speech school for teachers of Deaf students in Boston. 1876– the Association
of Medical Officers of American Institutions for
Idiotic and Feeble-Minded Persons is founded. Edward Seguin is
the first president. 1880– the National Association
of the Deaf is founded. 1882– institution in Syracuse,
New York opens farm colonies. 1883– Francis Galton, a
cousin to Charles Darwin, coins the term “eugenics.” 1887– women admitted to the
National Deaf-Mute College– now Gallaudet. 1888– Maryland opens
the Asylum and Training School for the Feeble-Minded. Late 1880s– Pennsylvania
adds a “girls” cottage for 80 women of childbearing age. 1889– Laura Bridgman,
world-famous blind student of the Perkins School, dies
at age 60 of pneumonia. 1892– Ellis Island opens. 1894– National Deaf-Mute College
becomes Gallaudet College. 1896– Charles Eliot Norton, editor
of the North American Review, advocates for the
“painless destruction” of insane and deficient minds. 1897– Martin Barr discuss
benefits of desexualization at the Association
for Medical Officers of American Institutions for
Idiotic and Feeble-Minded Persons. 1899– Boston starts
special education classes. Teachers are sent to Massachusetts
Institution for the Feeble-Minded at Waltham and Elwyn Institute
in Pennsylvania for training. 1900– Sigmund Freud publishes
The Interpretation of Dreams. 1901– Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
starts special education classes. 1903– US Congress bars
immigration of epileptics. 1904– Martin Barr
publishes Mental Defectives. 1906– Rome State Custodial Asylum
for Unteachable Idiots in New York opens a farm colony–
the Brush Colony. Research Department at the Training
School in Vineland, New Jersey is begun. Henry H. Goddard is hired
to head to laboratory. 1907– Indiana passes
sterilization law. 1909– Gunnar Dybwad, “Grandfather
of the self-advocacy movement,” is born in Germany. Clifford Beers, a young businessman
who had a mental breakdown and recovered, writes about it
in A Mind That Found Itself. 1910– Letchworth Village, an
institution for the feeble-minded, opens in New York. 1911– New Jersey legislature
authorizes state special education classes and mandates
eugenic sterilization for certain categories
of adult feeble-minded. Henry H. Goddard publishes
The Kallikak Family. Davenport and Florence H.
Danielson publish The Hill Folk. 1913– Wisconsin Legislature
authorizes sterilization to stop the breeding
of mental defectives. 1915– operating expenditures at
the Rome State Custodial Asylum for Unteachable Idiots for fiscal
year equals $228,893 or $12.81 per inmate, per month. 1916– Terman revises the Binet
test and introduces the term Intelligence Quotient or IQ. 1917– Charles Bernstein, at
Rome State Custodial Asylum, opens first colony for
females working in factories. Henry H. Goddard presents data
that 40% to 50% of immigrants are feeble-minded. US Congress declares
war with Germany and enters into World War I. 1918– New York’s sterilization law
is found to be unconstitutional. 1921– the American Foundation
for the Blind or AFB– a nonprofit organization
recognized as Helen Keller’s cause in the United States– is founded. 1924– Congress passes the
Immigration Restriction Act. 1926– Arthur H. Estabrook and
Ivan E. McDougle publish Mongrel Virginians– The Win Tribe. 1927– Buck versus Bell–
Supreme Court case that permits sterilizations. 1930– Harvey M.
Watkin’s questionnaire of 317 members of the American
Association on Mental Deficiency finds that 80% favor sterilizations. 1931– 27 states have
enacted sterilization laws. 1933– Germany enacts the Law
for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring, permitting
forced sterilization for people with perceived genetic disabilities
such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, manic depression, deafness,
congenital feeble-mindedness, Huntington’s chorea, and blindness. 1934– Third Reich begins
sterilization of Germans. 1935– the League for the
Physically Handicapped forms to protest discrimination
by the Works Progress Administration or WPA. 1936– the Children’s
Benevolent League organizes– later known as the Washington
Association for Retarded Children. 1938– the March of Dimes begins
treatment centers and fundraising for children and adults with polio. 1939– Dr. Foster Kennedy, head of
the Euthanasia Society of America, urges legalizing euthanasia
for, quote, “born defectives who are doomed to remain defective.” Hitler commences Aktion
T4 “mercy killing” program of the sick and disabled. 1941– US Congress declares war with
Japan and enters into World War II. 1942– the population
of Rome State School reaches 3,940, with
1,000 living in colonies. 1945– World War II ends. Nazis had murdered 18 to 26
million people in death camps. 2,000 paraplegic soldiers
survive the Second World War, compared with only 400 from
World War I. 1946– parents discuss forming a national
advocacy organization during an AAMD conference
in St. Paul, Minnesota. 1948– the General Assembly
of the United Nations adopts The Universal
Declaration of Human Rights. The United Cerebral Palsy
Association is founded. 1950– the National Association
for Retarded Children is formed. The Muscular Dystrophy
Association is founded. 1953– Ed Roberts, “father of
the Independent Living movement,” contracts polio. 1964– Ed Roberts enrolls at the
University of California, Berkeley. 1965– Robert F. Kennedy attacks the
Rome and Willowbrook State Schools in New York for
appalling conditions. Civil Rights marches
in Selma, Alabama. The Voting Rights Bill becomes law,
nullifying local laws and practices that prevent minorities from voting. Malcolm X is assassinated
on February 21. 1955– the Montgomery Bus Boycott. 1956– Brown versus
Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas– court
ruling that “separate but equal” segregated schools violate the
14th Amendment to the Constitution. 1957– Southern Christian
Leadership Conference– SCLC– is founded to coordinate
localized southern efforts to fight for civil rights. 1960– the Student Nonviolent
Coordinating Committee– or SNCC– is formed in
Raleigh, North Carolina by a group of Shaw
University students. The Greensboro sit-ins
began in February, protesting segregated seating
in a Woolworth’s diner. In two months, the
sit-in movement spreads to 54 cities in nine states. Thurgood Marshall, national
council for the NAACP, warns against accepting
“token integration.” 1963– the March on Washington
is the largest Civil Rights demonstration to date. Martin Luther King Jr. delivers a
speech entitled, “I Have A Dream.” 1967– National Theatre
of the Deaf is founded. 1968– Dr. Martin Luther King
Jr. is assassinated on April 4. 1969– Pennsylvania Association
for Retarded Children sues their state
over poor conditions. 1970– Ed Roberts and
his peers at Cowell– the UC Berkeley Health Center– form
a group called the Rolling Quads. The Rolling Quads form
the Disabled Students’ Program on the UC Berkeley campus. Wyatt versus Stickney
court case in Alabama paves the way for
deinstitutionalization across the country. 1971– the United Nations adopts
the Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons. 1972– Pennsylvania Association
for Retarded Children versus Commonwealth
of Pennsylvania rules that exclusionary provisions in
Pennsylvania’s compulsory school attendance laws are
unconstitutional. Geraldo Rivera’s TV report on
the Willowbrook State School and Letchworth Village is
aired to millions of viewers. 1972– the New York State
Association for Retarded Citizens brings a class action suit
against the state of New York, alleging severe violations
at the Willowbrook State School and Hospital. Section 504, or Public Law 92-603,
is added to the Rehabilitation Act, forbidding employment
discrimination against people with developmental disabilities
in federally funded programs. 1972– the Center for
Independent Living opens in Berkeley, California. England holds a national conference
sponsored by the Spastic Society and organized by the Campaign
for the Mentally Handicapped. 1973– Canada holds its first
self-advocacy conference. 1974– Disabled Women’s
Coalition founded at UC Berkeley by Susan Sygall and Deborah Kaplan. Self-advocates in Oregon
and Washington State organize the first US
self-advocacy conference. Wyatt versus Aderholt–
federal court rules that Alabama’s
eugenic sterilization law is unconstitutional. 1975– the United Nations
adopts a Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons. 1977– activists take over
the San Francisco offices of the US Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare to protest Secretary
Joseph Califano’s refusal to sign meaningful
regulations for Section 504. The action became the longest sit-in
of a federal building to date. The historic demonstrations
were successful and the 504 regulations
were finally signed. 1978– the federal government agrees
to fund Independent Living Centers. 1980– self-advocates in Minneapolis
picket their sheltered workshop for a union election. 1980 to ’83– Sears Roebuck and Co. Begins selling decoders for
closed captioning for television. 1984– Voting Accessibility for
the Elderly and Handicapped Act ensures that all polling
places must be accessible. 1980s– group homes become
common in communities, providing a “least restrictive
environment” for individuals with developmental disabilities. 1985– 19 states still have laws
permitting the sterilization of persons with mental retardation. Mental Illness Bill
of Rights Act expands coverage of Protection and
Advocacy to cover mental illness. 1979– the Disability Rights
Education and Defense Fund, or DREDF, is founded in
Berkeley, California. 1984– George Murray becomes
the first wheelchair athlete to be featured on the
Wheaties cereal box. 1985– the National Association of
Psychiatric Survivors is founded. 1986– Toward Independence is
published by the National Council of the Handicaped– now
National Council on Disability– recommending creation of the
Americans with Disabilities Act. 1987– the last residents move
out of the Pennhurst Institution in Pennsylvania. Across the country, people
are leaving institutions and moving into their communities. 1987– Marlee Matlin wins
an Oscar for her performance in Children of a Lesser God. 1987– the AXIS Dance Troupe is
founded in Oakland, California. 1988– “Deaf President Now”
protest at Gallaudet University in Washington, DC. Dr. I. King Jordan, the first Deaf
university president, is named. ADAPT demonstrators take on
inaccessible Greyhound buses. 1989– opening of a memorial
museum for the victims of “euthanasia” and
“special treatment” at a psychiatric hospital
in Bernburg, Germany. 1989– “Mouth– the Voice
of Disability Rights” begins publication in
Rochester, New York. 1990– ADAPT “Wheels of Justice”
action in Washington, DC. The Americans with Disabilities Act
or ADA is signed by President Bush. The Secretary of
Transportation, Sam Skinner, finally issues regulations
mandating lifts on buses. Self-Advocates Becoming Empowered
is formed during a meeting in Estes Park, Colorado. 1990– the Autism National
Committee is founded. 1990– the Education for
All Handicapped Children Act is amended and renamed
the Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act, or IDEA. 1991– Jerry’s Orphans stages
its first annual picket of the Jerry Lewis Muscular
Dystrophy Association telethon. 1991– federal “home of
your own” initiative begins. After seven years, Sharon Kowalski,
a woman disabled from an accident, is finally able to leave the
protective custody of a nursing home and live at home
with her partner Karen. 1993– Wade Blank, one
of the founders of ADAPT, dies trying to save
his son from drowning. 1994– the Remembering
with Dignity project begins in St. Paul, Minnesota
with the goal of placing names on the numbered graves in
Minnesota’s institutions and getting an apology
from the state for years of abuse, neglect, and abandonment. Death of Roland Johnson– a
nationally recognized advocate for all people with disabilities. 1995– the First International
Symposium on Issues of Women with Disabilities is held in
Beijing, China in conjunction with the Fourth World
Conference on Women. 1995– Sandra Jensen, a
member of People First, is denied a heart-lung transplant
by the Stanford University School of Medicine because
she has Down syndrome. After pressure from
disability rights activists, administrators there reverse their
decision, and in January 1996, Jensen becomes the first
person with Down syndrome to receive a heart-lung transplant. 1996– Not Dead Yet is
formed by disabled advocates to oppose Jack Kevorkian and the
proponents of assisted suicide for people with disabilities. 1996– Senator Robert Dole
becomes the first person with a visible disability
since Franklin Roosevelt to run for president of the United States. Unlike Roosevelt, he
publicly acknowledges the extent of his disability. 1996– Rodonna Freeman,
self-advocate in Minnesota, purchases a home of her own. 1998– the Remembering
with Dignity project secures the release
of names of people buried anonymously in the
Faribault Regional Treatment Center and begins to mark the gravesites
with proper headstones. The state of Minnesota
refuses to apologize. Fourth International
People First Conference held in Anchorage, Alaska. 1999– the Supreme Court upholds
“most integrated setting” requirement in the Olmstead case. Death of Irving Martin– a
national self-advocacy leader from Minnesota. 2000– 10th anniversary of the ADA. Fewer than 50,000 people
living in public institutions. 2001– in Alabama versus
Garret, the Supreme Court rules that state employees can
no longer sue their employers for money damages under the ADA. This decision weakens federal
civil rights protections. As the Senate is divided
50-50, Senator Jim Jeffords leaves the Republican Party
and becomes an Independent. Members of SABE meet with
Senator Jeffords the same day. Hijacked airplanes on
September 11 kill nearly 3,000 in New York City after the World
Trade Center towers collapse. Another airplane crashes into
the Pentagon in Washington, DC. Gunnar Dybwad, a founding father
of Inclusion International and lifelong supporter of
self-advocacy, dies at age 92. SABE, ADAPT, and NCIL sign
a statement of solidarity. 2002– the National
Organization on Disability establishes the Emergency
Preparedness Initiative to address the special
needs of people with disabilities in
emergency situations. Paul Wellstone, US
senator from Minnesota and strong supporter
of disability rights, dies tragically in a plane
crash with his wife Sheila and several close friends. Justin Dart, a prominent leader in
the international disability rights movement, dies at age 71. 2003– ADAPT members and
allies march from Philadelphia to Washington, DC in
support of MiCASSA. Self-advocates demand
language change. By executive order, the President’s
Committee on Mental Retardation changed its name to the
President’s Committee for People with
Intellectual Disabilities. 2004– SABE and Project
Vote produce resources highlighting voting
issues faced by people with developmental disabilities. 2005– the Birmingham Civil
Rights Institute in Alabama hosts an exhibit on
disability history featuring the struggles and
accomplishments of people with developmental disabilities. SABE stirs debate when it protests
the Alliance for Full Participation summit planned for
September, 2005, asserting that the voices of self-advocates
are not being heard. After much discussion, SABE and
other sponsoring organizations come together and
host the conference. Over 2,500 people attend. Terri Schiavo dies on March 31
after her feeding tube is removed. Hurricane Katrina hits the
Gulf Coast in late August, causing thousands of
deaths and destruction across coastal regions of
Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. 2006– West Virginia
is the first state to require all students to
study disability history. 2007– global financial
crisis leads to fewer services available to people in need. The United Nations
adopts the Convention on the Rights of Persons. 2008– Americans with
Disabilities Act– ADA– amendment expands coverage to more people. Barack Obama becomes the first
African American president of the United States. 2009– Self Advocates
Becoming Empowered– SABE– issues a position paper calling
for an end to subminimum wages. 2010– the Affordable
Care Act increases accessibility and affordability
of health insurance. 2011– Alabama
becomes the 12th state to close its public institutions
housing people with disabilities. 2012– the US Department
of Education rules that all students must
have equal opportunity to participate in extracurricular
activities, including sports. 2014– Rhode Island agrees to
landmark settlement regarding sheltered work, addressing
the rights of people with disabilities to receive
employment and daytime services in the broader community. This panel was sponsored in
part by People First of Alabama in honor of the 50th anniversary
of the Civil Rights Movement.

Cesar Sullivan

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