Solingen 93

Domestic Violence and Abuse

Liz Jackson | Honoring the Friction of Disability

[ music ] It was about a year ago and I was
heading into work. It was early. It was 7:00 a.m. and it was on the cusp of
spring. It was a beautiful day, and I just happened to cross the most beautiful
bouquet of flowers I had ever seen. They were thrown away in a trash can.
I couldn’t believe it. They were it was just it was absolutely stunning. And so, I
was sitting there and I was looking at these flowers and I was thinking, “I have
to save them.” But the cherry blossoms they were there were maybe six feet tall.
Right? There was no way I was gonna get them to the office and so I looked and
there was some tulips scattered around the bottom. And so, I took the
tulips. I picked him up and I took them into the office. But before I left, I took
a picture of the scene which is the picture you see now. As I was heading
back into the office I was looking at these beautiful tulips and I was just thinking
to myself, “who would throw these flowers away?” “who would do that?” And I get
to the office and I just… I can’t over it and so I open up and I’m
looking at the picture and I’m looking at those tulips… or the
cherry blossoms and I’m thinking “somebody has to save these.” So I go back and I decide
I’m gonna save the cherry blossoms. I get to the trashcan and I go and lift out two stems and as I’m doing it,
right… the whole trash can falls over [ laughter ] and I’m I’m just I’m horrified. I’m like, “no,
but it was so beautiful!” Right? And I’m wearing this brand new
leather jacket. And I don’t care. I hug that New York City trash can and I
lift it back up but the cherry blossoms they were lopsided but in the process
I’d managed to pull out a couple of stems I trekked back to the office. I’m sitting there and I open up the picture and I’m looking at it again and
I happened to notice a hashtag at the bottom. I was like “huh.” So I open up
Instagram and I type in the hashtag and I realized that nobody had actually
thrown these flowers away. This was a public art installation. [ laughter ] I was I was horrified. I actually
was pretty down on myself. I actually started crying.
It’s like “who would do this?” [ laughter ] So I did what any sort of reasonable Liz would do in this situation and I emailed Lewis Miller, the artist and I told on myself.
And this is what I said: “I find myself completely overwhelmed both by the beauty and by the
misguided nature of my instinct. I hope this serves as a reminder to me,
a disability advocate, that not all things need saving.
Sometimes, they just need to exist. the world is [ applause ] The world has taught us that a disabled
body is nothing more than a body in need of intervention, right? And this is
exactly what designers do. We design interventions.
We dedicate our careers to it. We are here today because of our commitment to this process. We are seekers who develop our skills with rigor because there’s a
certain glory in being a designer. We oftentimes want to be the best. So, I see the natural progression. Of course we’re going to want to take our highly
attuned skills and apply them to something that we think needs fixing. But I’m
someone who straddles both sides. I am a disabled designer. And while solutions feel fulfilling to me as a designer… as a disabled person, this
process feels destructive. It feels like we have become a project or a topic
instead of a discipline or a craft. Where is the rigger? Design schools are beginning
to offer accessibility curriculum. But in lieu of creativity, students are learning about disability through compliance checklists. But that’s not design. Design is art. Right? It’s art with rules and if accessibility
is the rules, where is the art? This is actually where I come in. Right?
Because the art is in the disability culture. It’s in the history. It’s in the theory.
It’s in the knowledge. People don’t realize that disability is something
a person can feel passion for and endeavor in. Disability can be a practice.
A creative practice. But design schools aren’t fostering
relationships with people who engage in disability as a creative practice. And so, a culture is
being created where students don’t think that they need to build real
relationships with actual disabled people. They think that they just need to
feel empathy for us. While it’s not their fault, it does need to be said that this empathy leads to the creation of what I like to call “disability dongles”. So what is a disability dongle? “A well intended and elegant yet useless solution
to a problem we never knew we had. Disability dongles are most frequently conceived of
and created in design schools and at IDEO. [ laughter ] I’ve had the opportunity to do a lot of talks
and it used to be a lot of fun to just get on a stage and rag on on large
companies… and to say, “Look. You know you don’t realize it
but you’re inadvertently messing up. But, lately I’ve actually been feeling a bit sad about it all. because even when they know… nothing changes. My relationship with IDEO, or lack thereof,
started about a year ago— a little over a year ago; in the era
of the flowers… when they invited me to come to their office. They said they wanted to show me something. So I go there and they should they show me—
they say “we created a technology that is intended to get disabled people hired. and I said, “Great. What disabled people did you hire … to create this technology that is
intended to get disabled people hired?” [ laughter ] and they were like, “none.” [ applause ] They didn’t realize that they were reifying
very stigmas they had sought out to ease. They still don’t realize that inviting some
disabled creatives to their office for some
networking cocktails might do a whole hell of a lot more than some
grand gesture of a website. And the reason they don’t realize it
is because we’re disabled. And so therefore we are users and testers instead of designers and decision makers. We don’t get to pick the imagery.
We *are* the imagery— for their website, for the brochures… for their fundraising materials. It’s funny, like, even if we did get
invited to their office for cocktails, they’d probably just take pictures of us. [ laughter ] It’s actually what happened to me during
my first interaction with AIGA. So they had a request for proposals.
They had a question-and-answer session for this RFP for an inclusion grant.
And, I wanted to learn more and I showed up. There were about a dozen of us,
a variety of diverse people in the room and there was a professional photographer… which felt a little awkward to me. and about About halfway into the the session,
I realized the photographer had honed in on me because he could see a picture of
my kane. And so, I took my cane and I hid it behind me. Then all of a sudden I saw the
photographer sort of creeping around back and I was like, “Ugh.” Right?
So, I had to hide my kane under the table. After a while, I got frustrated and
I actually I got up to leave. But unlike my experience with IDEO…
AIGA leadership, they followed me and they stopped me before I reached the exit. Right? And they emailed me the next day. And the next.
And it wasn’t just one person. It was many. And now I’m here. I suppose to say thank you. Anyway, say you’re a professor with no experience and disability.
How would you grade your students disability project? Would you grade it based on how it’s
experienced by the disabled person? And, how would you even know
how it’s experienced? Or is there a chance that you might get caught up in your students’ well-meaning intentions. In my experience, most teachers do the latter. Now, what’s going to happen when that same student approaches you and says they want to
learn how to engage in disability as a creative practice. Who do you refer them to for guidance? What are the best practices?
And, where are the resources? This is why it’s absolutely essential to
insert disability studies curriculum
into design schools. Accessibility is only one part of disability. It’s the how. Disability studies is the who. It’s the what.
It’s the when, the where, and the why. To be short, disability studies
prevents disability dongles. And, this is why it’s so important for all of us to engage in disability as a creative practice. I feel like some of you might be asking yourselves like, “How did she pick the word ‘dongle’?” Right? You could have any word.
The truth of the matter is that I didn’t pick it. Some designer somewhere was like “we need a word… okay that’ll do.” Right? And then other designers are like,
“yeah, that describes the thing. We’ll use that” and so its become this word that designers use
all while doing everything that they can to avoid saying the word disability. Right? I’m not talking about a diversity dongle or a differently-abled dongle or an
adaptive dongle or an accessible dongle No. I’m talking about a disability dongle. So how do you begin to engage
in disability as a creative practice? Well, you question what you think you know. And this… the way I got started was by
creating a new design methodology that I that I call design questioning. Design questioning is my response to design thinking Which, as many of you know, was an approach
to design that was created in the 1960s, by white men who
really have no equals, right? So these were men who were at the top of their
professions they were aligned with many of the greatest institutions in the
world and they were creating products that filled the homes of millions of
people all over the world. And they started realizing that design wasn’t
reaching everybody and so they created a system to fill in the gaps, right?
They created design thinking. While much good has come of design thinking
It has inadvertently fueled the narrative that we are recipients—rather than drivers—of design. And so, this is what design questioning does.
It looks at Design Thinking from the users’ perspective because when we’re finally able to
question the systems that disable us… everybody involved stops seeing
our bodies is the problem. So, let’s look at design thinking through
the lens of design questioning. Step one of design thinking is you
‘cultivate empathy through observations and interviews’ But to a disabled person,
this can oftentimes feel a little bit less like empathy and a little bit more like designers are gleaning *our* ideas
and *our* life hacks so that they can sell them back
to us as “inspirational-do-good” without ever giving us credit. It reminds me of the story of Betsy Farber Do you guys know OXO kitchen products at all? There there’s great kitchen products
with these gummy tactile handles. The gummy tactile handle was actually
invented by my mentor Tucker Viemeister who I sit across from in the office. And so, I had grown accustomed…
like, OXO has become the universal example of universal design. If you go on the OXO website,
what you’ll see is a story that says Sam Farber saw that his wife was
having a hard time peeling a carrot. So he made about an easier peeler
for her to use because of her arthritis. I had heard the story time and again and so one day
I finally asked Tucker. I said, “Tucker… can you tell me about Sam’s wife Betsy?”
and Tucker said “oh yeah.” He’s like “did you know she was a designer?”
I said, “No! I did not know she was a designer.” He was like, “yeah.”
He was like, “She was around all the time.” and I was like “oh, okay.” And I started thinking about it and I realized…
I don’t know a single designer who would just inspirationally let
her husband make her a better peeler. And so I decided to pick up the phone and I call Betsy and the first thing she says to me is… “I’m gonna go down in history as being Sam’s
lowly crippled wife and it was actually
my idea in the first place.” [ laughter ] So that’s step one. [ laughter ] I think about this stuff too much. So you have our insights gleaned and you enter
step 2 of the design thinking process which is defining the problem. But because disabled people are never
allowed to lead, it oftentimes becomes us that’s defined as the problem rather
than the problem being defined is the problem. It becomes about what we can or can’t do rather than how something does
or doesn’t work for us, right? So you’ve got our insights gleaned, we’re defined as the problem,
and then designers enter this iterative process of ideation, prototyping, and testing. They eventually land out what I call the unacknowledged sixth step of design
thinking, or as I call it, “Design Thanking” because we’re expected to be *that*
for what’s been done for us. And the truth of the matter is, that since I’ve started this
process I’ve actually gotten a bit more out of Design Questioning than I actually
ever really had out of Design Thinking. I’m gonna tell you a story about Thisten. So. Two years ago, I was at South by Southwest and three things happened.
The first thing that happened was I knew in advance that I was going to
have some deaf friends that I really admire who were going to be there,
who I asked for a an interpreter for my panel and when I showed up there was no interpreter. And I was pissed. But it was fine because they didn’t
actually arrive until the next day. So the next day I decided to go to their panel,
and I don’t know if you guys know much about Deaf culture but when deaf people are
speaking, deaf people show up. and so I arrived at their panel: two deaf people
and two non-deaf people on the panel… no interpreter. the only interpreter was the
one that Jenny Lay-Flurrie, the chief accessibility officer from Microsoft
had flown in with her from Seattle. And so, her back was facing the audience
so that Jenny could read what she was saying… and at the at the end of the the panel when the
question and answer session happened someone took a mic and the very first question was “Where’s the interpreters?” And while I was there, somebody next to me said
“oh, there’s a really interesting panel after this on phantom pain. Do you want to go with me?” and
I have sensory issues I thought it might interesting so I said yes. And when I got there, I found out the name of the panel it was called “End of Disability”
and I was horrified because they wouldn’t have an end of women panel they
wouldn’t have an end of gay people panel why are people always trying to get rid
of us? and so I took the mic and I said as much as much and somebody happened to be in
the audience and it happened to make the rounds on disability Twitter and it ended up prompting
Hugh Forrest, who’s the director of South by Southwest, to reach out. And we get on this phone
and we’re having this amazing conversation where we’re basically taking turns creatively telling each other how much we hate each other. [ laughter ] I finally tell him I’m like “I’m going to make a technology that’s
going to shed light on your accessibility failures.” And he said “fine, do it.”
And I said, “fine.” and I hung up. And I was like “shit.” [ laughter ] So I I’m in this new office
where I am a fellow and I was pacing around and this guy.. I was pissed,
and this guy approaches me in the kitchen he’s like “What are you doing here?”
I was like “what are you talking about?” He’s like “what are you doing here?” … And I was like “what are you talking about?”
and he said “You weren’t at South-by, were you?”
I was like “yeah.” He’s like “You weren’t at
‘An End of Disability’ panel, were you?” and I was like “Yeah.” He’s like, “Oh my god. Like, you totally blew my mind!” He’s like “that night when I went
home the only thing I told my my wife was what you said.” He’s like “it left an
impression on me.” and I was like “great!” He’s like “what are you doing here?” and I
said “well a mentor of mine told me I should come and work in this space as a
fellow.” I said “what are you doing here?” and he said “Well, I’m the head of product.”
and I said “Well, that’s great because I just got off the phone with Hugh Forrest
and I told no it’s gonna make this technology and I have no idea how to do
it.” [ laughter ] So I told him what it is. it’s simple it’s a live speech-to-text
app that uses google’s api There’s speech-to-text api but what we do is,
that all in the audience we crowdsource Corrections for errors. So in the case
that an interpreter doesn’t show up— at least the disabled person would have
a way to access what’s going on in any event on their phone. And it was really fascinating so he helped me actually build a demo he’s like yeah he’s like
that’s easy so we built a demo and I get asked two weeks later by Google Creative
Lab if I could come speak before an internal hackathon they had and so I
went and I spoke and I used the opportunity to tell them
my idea and I showed him the demo on there like that’s great we want to build
the backend. And so, they built the backend and they gave me a grant and I
found a team and I built it and two years later I launched it a few weeks
ago at South by Southwest. [ applause ] And we’re actually going to be testing
it out tomorrow in the business and entrepreneurship sessions if you want to
test it out. You just download the app Thissen and and even if you’re not
in those sessions you can sort of see it in real time if you’re if you’re
elsewhere but the thing is, is… thing that was just a ‘fuck you’, right?
It turned into something and now I realize like okay well now I have made
my point and now I can I can start to make some other points. And so there’s things I’m thinking about right and one of the things I’m thinking about is
it’s my frustration with companies that decide that they’re gonna hire disabled
people. When they talk about us they do so through the lens of empathy
right like, “oh, we empathetically hired these lowly disabled people.” Right?
Well I want to be the company right I want to get money I want to be the company that
goes out and poaches you’re disabled talent right like I want to be that
asshole right because because we deserve to be
treated competitively and so there’s these ways in which I was never
expecting it but I found myself wildly empowered but then there’s other ways
where I feel like my empowerment minute is sort of being stripped from me right
so I think about… I think about… So my team, it’s me and it’s three people
that don’t have identify as disabled and I struggle with that, right? I think
this product is as deserving of a disabled founding team but then I
realized if it was me and three other disabled people and we went into a VCS
office and we tried to raise some capital we’d probably get a whole lot
less than what we’re worth and the VC would feel inspiration and empathy and
pat himself on the back for his good deed. So long as I have three people who
aren’t disabled around me I feel like I have a greater chance of protecting
myself, and that’s not fair. And I think this is really what I spend a lot
of my time doing is sort of strategically thinking about how—and
this is how it always plays out in disability— the things that we
radically fight for turn into things that are empathetically done for us it
makes me think about national adapt right so in Denver in the early 1970s
there was what is called the gang of nineteen and it’s nineteen people
nineteen disabled people who had escaped institutions and this was the first time
after industrialization that disabled people had found themselves out of institutions and they quite simply had to escape
there was 19 people in Denver who were now out in the world and they looked
radical right people had never seen these bodies before and they wanted
something radical they wanted access in the form of bus lifts on buses and and
they went about it in a really radical way right they parked their bodies in
front of buses and intersections at the time just right the society was
frightened they wanted to look away but things evolved and suddenly these bodies
seemed a little less radical right and then suddenly their idea seemed a little
less radical and then suddenly people were like yeah buses should come with
bus lifts and suddenly buses did start coming with bus lifts and then when the
1990s rolled around it was so powerful that when the a ADA was finally written
bus lifts were written into the a ADA and in the disability community we often
times to look at this and we think of it as as a profound success but I actually
see something a little bit different. The very moment that bus slips were written
pen to paper into the ADA, disabled people were no longer needed and the
thing that they fought so valiantly for right now bus lifts were something that
were empathetically done for disabled people. And it’s not just national adapt. So I created something called The With Fellowship where I partner creative
disabled people with top design studios and creative spaces and the reason I
chose the word “with” was because if you google the phrase design for disability
what you’ll see is is that it yields more than twice as many search results
as “disability design” this idea that we are recipients of design has embedded
itself into our language even though we are responsible for the internet we
created email we created the bicycle we created cruise control curb cuts the
electric toothbrush the iPhone touchscreen and more right? Our
ingenuity changes the world and yet we are perceived as recipients so I created The
With Fellowship. And more often than not when companies turned to me to ask about
The With Fellowship, they say to me “oh so you’re talking about co-designed.” I say
“No. I’m not talking about co-designed at all. “With” is the antithesis of co-design.
So what’s the difference? Well in co-design it’s the institutions that get
to decide when and how disabled people are involved but “with”… “with” is us inserting our selves into the process and so earlier I
was telling you about that that AIGA RFP I do want to let you know that I
actually ended up winning the grant from that call for proposals for the With
Fellowship so thank you AIGA. [ applause ] So, you know, there’s these ways in which my
thinking has progressed over the last few years but where I’m actually really
at now is is trying to figure out how does a person actually fight back
against empathy? Right? How do you do that? And I think to actually answer
this you have to understand what empathy is. So empathy is a term—it’s only 110 years old—it was coined in 1909. It was brought to America
after… so there was this psychologist in Germany his name was Theodore Lipps. So he
was he was friends with Abril k and Rodan right he was Freud’s mentor and
what he saw was is that when a person enters a museum and they encounter a
great work of art that person they might tug at their collar or they might put
their hand on their chest and step back or they might sway what he saw was is
that people are physically moved by works of great human expression and so
he developed a term that he called I’m fulong and that’s what it meant
physically moved by works of great human expression and then some time passes and
it makes its way to America after taking off in Germany and when it lands in
America in the form of empathy it shifts and it no longer means physically moved
by works of great human expression and now it means feeling sympathy or as we
disabled people experience it… pity for another person’s situation or circumstance.
So as this is the thing that I get so caught up in is that as empathy
shifted from inspiration to pity at the same time disability was shifting from
pity the inspiration and I think in this process I think all of us have lost the
ability to parse out one emotion from the other and so I think about what does
it mean then when we are unable to parse out these emotions and yet they are the
core of what we’re doing in design and I realized there’s three outcomes. The first is that disability reifies
class and power structures So you always have the ’empathizer’ and then you have the “empathizee”
The empathizer ends up becoming a savior in this situation They get to tell the story We never hear from the empathizee. The second is, it prescribes emotions. Like, empathy, like we’re so focused
on making things feel a certain way that we’ve forgotten to actually make things
that do a certain thing. And I’ve actually come to believe that we’re so
focused on this that it’s actually the make trying to make something feel like
empathy is actually preventing us from doing the things that we’ve set out to
do and the last thing is is that it silences the recipient. The word empathy is frequently used in conjunction with a concept that’s been kind of growing as
of late this idea of “design-for-all” where it’s presumed where, if you design
something for a disabled person everybody is going to benefit but if you
actually really closely look at like when and how it’s used what you would
realize is is that it’s really nothing more than virtue signaling it’s no
different than empathy and I know it makes all of us uncomfortable but we
need to start thinking critically about things we perceive as wholesome because
there are a whole lot more complex than we ever give ourselves, you
know, allow ourselves to think. So I want to take a moment to talk
about this idea of “universality”: design-fo-all when we design for disability everybody
benefits… Disability did not exist before
industrialization. Right? So you might have me with my cane, you might have a
deaf person, and you might have a blind person existing in their communities
contributing as they could. But they were never grouped together as this thing
right they were viewed as separate. So what happened was, is industrialization
rolled around and it created this expectation that bodies can perform in
rote and mechanized ways. And suddenly there was a subset of bodies that
couldn’t. And so industry at the time turned to doctors and philosophers to
diagnose those bodies medically as disabled. Those bodies were then
segregated and institutionalized. And so it strikes me as so fascinating that the
very thing that created us in the first place, this expectation of mass and normal
and universality, is the very thing thing that we turn to, you know, all these
decades later to try and actually solve it: mass and normal and universality We’re trying so hard to fix disability that we can’t actually see when we’re actually
reifying it and recreated it. And so my question is, what would
happen instead—if instead of trying to smooth out disability, we
instead developed the capacity to and not acknowledge and appreciate the
friction of it, right? I want to be able to honor the friction of my disability.
My work is not universal. But it’s also not niche. And I’d like to think if design
can start investing in disabled bodies instead of trying to fix us,
this work can be expansive. We are designers. As children, we might realize we have a
knack for this work. But we don’t just think we can do it, right? No. We go to school
and we develop our skill set with rigor and then we graduate and we
continue education and we end up at events like this one here today. And yet somehow we’re the very people that when it comes to disability, we think we just
know. But we don’t. I woke up seven years and five days ago to a new body and I have spent the last seven years and five days unlearning
everything I know about disability. And I have now reached a point where the word
disability and the word design have become synonymous, to me.
They mean the same thing. One is the result of the other… One informs the other. And so I’m left wondering when are we going to start to engage the other side of design? Thank you [ applause ] That was so good. I think I just did something
to my mic but it makes sound still. It still makes sounds, we’re good. So I have something is very specific to ask you. Maybe you in the audience have seen a
few of these going around? These guys. You are responsible for these. There we go. [ laughter ] Tell me about this project. So I’m… I’m… a troll. [ laughter ] And there’s something so hilarious to me
because there is this tension between disability and design that I’m not sure
if everybody here is aware of but… Design hates Comic Sans. Like you guys hate it
and yet in disability this is a more legible font, right? [ applause ] Its true. People find that it’s a much easier to read font. So, you know, I think it’s sort of…
I find it to be this sort of visual example of what it is that we’re sort of
experiencing in in both disability and design and so what I thought would be
really interesting was, I wanted to challenge brands to make a comic sans
version of their logo as a statement that you are engaging in disability as a
creative practice. And so I, given my experiences with AIGA and how they’ve been open to working with me, I decided how it’s just going to do it for them. [ laughter ] it’s hilarious because I took like the first person I showed it to and like “the
kerning!” I was like “But I don’t gotta!” [ laughter ] So… there are go. And so, you know
I’m hopeful that, you know… brands might be willing to make a statement
that you know not everything needs to be fixed maybe we can just engage a little bit. So that’s the story behind it. So in the spirit We made a 99% invisible logo in Comic Sans, right there.
It’s gorgeous. [ applause ] And so, we want, kind of… it would be
really fun, over the course of the weekend, to like make a comic sans
version of your logo and know that your that’s thinking about this stuff and
it’s #ComicSansTakeover Put it up online, #ComicSansTakeover and see if you can really engage with the ideas I was just thinking about the Betsy Farber story
and in like I’m a professional storyteller and there’s no reason why
the story you found out is a worst story to tell than the other one
so why do you think that that one’s still the one perpetuated on the OXO
website and not the one that you found out? Well, I think… I would say— So I ended up writing a piece in
The New York Times about it Yeah. And I thought after I wrote that piece
OXO would actually correct the story but instead they’ve doubled down. and I think this is the case with a lot of things. I think there is a certain way that we like to tell stories of disability. I think we
like to have a savior as the protagonist. They’re, you know, and I know you sort of
encountered this a little bit on your podcast because you’ve done
podcasts on the curb cut and stuff Right. So there’s this term in disability. It’s
called ‘inspiration porn’. I feel like there’s a lot of porn like happening on the stage today… That’s the way we like it. But you know I think I I think it’s that people like to be very
inspired by disabled people and it really prevents us from kind of
realizing what are the true stories behind this and so you know I’ve really
taken an interest in uncovering a lot of these histories so I often tell the story… Does anybody here use finger works? Really? So in 1998 there’s this guy,
his name’s Wayne Westermann and he had some carpal tunnel
and some tendinitis and he wanted to figure out if there was a way he could
continue working and so he developed this thing called finger works and then
in 2005 Steve Jobs bought it it’s the iPhone touchscreen right so who here
uses finger works? [ laughter ] This is the thing… there are disabled
people behind so many stories between so many objects that we encounter every day
and they just get written out of history and so I’ve been really working to try
and uncover a lot of these histories there’s so many of them. That’s fantastic.
Liz Jackson, everybody.

Cesar Sullivan

2 thoughts on “Liz Jackson | Honoring the Friction of Disability

  1. Hey. AIGA. Captions not CRAPtions please…

    Explaining Craptions: The d/Deaf community term for automatic captions which are not fit for purpose; decent captions serve everyone though. There are a few different takes from different deaf YouTubers all worth watching. Jessica Kellgren Fozard's videos on the topic are probably the broadest and cover the business case/practice too (hire a captioning service; have an accurate transcript; reach audiences; be equitable to people who need it) and all in a very pretty art-managed way, but don't just stop there. At the very least do it/hire a service. It's basic professional design stuff for YouTube.

    A great speaker – hope you can run after your credibility again.

  2. Excellent talk. What is the “this” mentioned at the end? From context, it’s some object set in Comic Sans. Make talks even more accessible by describing images.

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