Solingen 93

Domestic Violence and Abuse

The Psychology of Violent Behaviour

thank you very much and thank you everybody for coming and thank you for staying and hopefully we'll get you home by the third period for the Canucks fans in the room I'd like to actually pick up on a lot of the themes that Jody talked about in fact thankfully we don't contradict each other a lot of the themes that Jody talked about had to do with the nature of adolescent crime in Canada and what psychologists can do about that and I'll be talking about violence more particularly as opposed to crime more generally and also focusing on adults so we're going to transition to an older age group but also be talking about what psychologists can do in what cycle just have done in order to facilitate the understanding of violence and at a more practical level preventing violence and assessing risk for violence and so forth so just to give you a bit of a summary I'd first like to kind of paint a picture give you the the landscape the nature of violence in Canada how much violence is actually committed what types of violent behaviors against whom and so forth I'm going to talk a little bit about theories of violence and these are really important to actually help guide research in psychology if you consider psychology to be a social science science is nothing if it doesn't have a theoretical basis to help us understand the phenomena that we're trying to research as well as to help explain what we observe but then I'll move into more pragmatic matters about how we can go from the theoretical to the practical in terms of understanding violence and predicting and preventing violence and so forth and I'll conclude with a few comments about how psychology might be able to inform the reduction for the risk risk of violence and actually reducing violent recidivism so how much violence happens in Canada and if we define violence as murder attempted murder assault robbery and sexual offences how much violence actually happens in Canada so here's a bit of an academic jeopardy scenario for you here's an answer 17 what's the question I'll be really surprised if anybody gets us doo-doo-doo-doo per day filing tax per day good guess number of violent offenses reported to the police during this talk so in the next 30 minutes there'll be 17 violent offences as covered down here at the bottom reported to the police here's another answer 304,000 beg your pardon per day I hope not per year yes number of violent offenses reported to the police in one year in Canada that's a whole lot of violence we know actually it's extraordinarily costly to those who experience it in terms of health effects to the economic burden on our health system because many of these three hundred and four thousand people will end up in hospitals trying to recover the Government of Canada spends and of the provinces about three billion dollars a year just on the correctional systems and that doesn't account for the costs devoted to police to judges the judiciary and so forth I like to point out something called the dark figure of crime this is something that's criminologist have talked about for quite some time and it gets at the idea that reported crimes are a vast underestimate of the actual number of crimes that happen because most crimes are not reported to the police report a crime underestimates true crime rate and by some estimates the actual crime rate is about five to ten times higher than the reported crime rate to give you an example of this statistics Canada conducts what they call the General Social Survey every five years or so and they ask questions about violence in this survey and then they make extrapolations to the prevalence of violence in Canadian society so they actually estimate that there are not three hundred and four thousand acts of violence in a year but there's two million violent crimes in a year in Canada two million involving 1.2 million victims of Islands age 15 or older and what that means is that some people are obviously victimized more than once but note that this excludes people under the age of 15 so by definition it also excludes child abuse and they remove from their definition here spousal violence and we know that about seven to eight percent of long-term relationships include physical violence going in one direction or both directions between partners so that would be about 115 violent crimes that happened during this talk better hurry up yeah or 345 between the three of us just to give you a sense of the important public health concern that violence is most of these violent crimes are assaults and they are what can be called level one assaults which is common assault punching somebody beating somebody up level two assaults and level three assaults down here seventeen percent of all crimes violent crimes this is aggravated assault and assault with a weapon next we have robbery sexual assault other assaults assaulting a police officer and so forth other sexual offenses and so forth just to give you a bit of a sense of the types of violent offenses that happen Jody talked about the crime rates over time so this is the memory test portion of the talk are the crime rates a decreasing be increasing see increasing and then decreasing see great good answer so we see Violent Crimes down here at the bottom all crimes tend to kind of peak in the early 90s or so and then start to start to level off how about the homicide rate the murder rate over time do you think it follows a similar pattern or do you think it's going up or going down okay sure can it can certainly respond to what's going on in the economy and inflation and employment rates and so forth it follows a pretty similar pattern to other crime so it has been more or less decreasing since the early 90s with a bit of an increase over the last couple of years but that could be just as Jody had mentioned kind of little little fluctuations over time crime rates by province what's the most violent or crime-infested province here in BC it's lala land right everybody wants to live in Lotus land we hang around in January at Starbucks sitting outside it's a beautiful place to live anybody have a guess speak up Montreal the three blocks of Hastings that's an excellent answer yes avoid those three blocks of Hastings we see actually very storing relationship between east and west with the west being having much higher crime rates than the east and this is a phenomenon you see in the US as well Ontario in fact has the lowest crime rate how about the murder rate by province similar it's similar BC is a little bit lower but we see it higher in the West and in the east and if you really want to be safe move to Prince Edward Island and we can talk at the end about some potential explanations for this Geographic variability but I thought just to give you a bit of a sense of how crime is distributed in our country what age group you think is most likely to perpetrate violence younger older what age range would you say damn 85 plus good guys are you sure you that's your you sure you're the chair of our department is it yes 25 to 35 okay it's actually crime and violence peak at about age 15 that's this is general property crime the bars and the line is violent crime and then a steady decline any 15 or 16 year olds here so don't miss at the back okay um look out how about in terms of victims of violence more likely to be male or female male for all types of violence except for sexual balance how old same age group 15 to 24 so it's actually mostly young males beating up young males that's primarily the majority of violence in Canada single or married single there's one of my colleagues likes to say finally a reason for marriage urban or rural urban yes and known are unknown to perpetrators good but 50 to 80% of incidents are committed by friends acquaintances and family okay let me talk a little bit about a couple of theories of violence obviously I hope I've demonstrated that violence is very common in our society and it happens to a lot of people it happens mainly among the younger folks in our society but also to adults as well obviously so I'm going to just very briefly tell you about a couple of theories and over on the right hand side the indicator risk factors some of the more concrete examples that we could expect to come out of these theories so there's been biological theories of violence for example people have talked about the imbalance of neurotransmitters or chemicals in our brain that help us will do everything basically people have talked about genetics so there is no gene for crime there is no gene for violence but there are certainly predispositions to certain types of personality or behavioral styles that may then put people at higher risk for acting in an aggressive manner so some of the indicator risk factors would be certain mental illnesses which we know have neurochemical or genetic components emotional dysregulation and parental characteristics so in fact if we know that in previous generations pair it's engaged in criminal behavior we know that that is a risk factor for criminal behavior in the next generation social learning theory would suggest that a lot of crime and violence is due to reinforcement principles that is people are rewarded or reinforced for acting in an antisocial way that is they act in an antisocial way and they get something they want and that is reinforcing they can also be reinforced by modeling parents for instance modeling peers vicarious reinforcement means that if somebody observes another person get reading reinforced for acting in antisocial manner they might just try it themselves so some of the risk factors we would look for here include an antisocial peer network which is one of the things that Jodie talked about parental criminality again and parental discipline style overly harsh or abusive parental discipline style social bonding or control theories have to do with the extent to which people are bonded to and believe in society and its norms and values and also the degree to which people are attached to others and attached to conventional societal institutions the idea of marriage for instance and therefore would be concerned by the reactions of other people to their behavior so we can look here at things like antisocial attitudes unemployment being unmarried and so forth just a couple more social disorganization theory looks at the idea of disruption in social integration so lack of consensus about the norms or values in the community and also people in those communities who have a discrepancy between what you could call the ideal if you can assume that most people want to have stability financial stability a good place to live somewhere to sleep and so forth and the actual to the extent that people don't have these things it puts a strain on them and then they may take whatever means possible even if they're not pro-social means to try to obtain the ideal to obtain material wealth and so forth so we can look at neighborhood factors as a risk factor living situation stability housing conditions and so forth and finally there's a host of we could call psychological theories that would essentially hold that different personal characteristics individual differences between us some of those may be more likely to lead to violent behavior and these can interact easily with preceding theories so certain types of personalities may do better in a disorganized neighborhood a chaotic neighborhood somebody who's stable and low-key for instance some of the important constructs that people have looked at include psychopathic personality hostility anger and mental illness so let's go from theory to practice here's people's ideas about what is important in terms of violent behavior let's look at first where society intervenes in violent incidents so when these 304,000 violent acts occur what happens first when we're dealing with young kids kids under 12 most of what happens in response to aggressive behavior comes from parents schools and possibly from provincial ministries if we move to adolescents this is the topic of Jody's presentation the youth criminal justice system may intervene and finally when we move to adults primarily we're dealing with courts and correctional systems obviously prisons and jails sentencing decisions as Jodie was describing often have to do with forecasting whether personally violent or not in the future and whether or not people get out of prison well when people get out of prison because in Canada almost every person gets out there very very few people who will stay in prison forever parole decisions are made primarily on whether or not a person poses an undue risk of harm to society upon release that is calls for a risk assessment in the forensic psychiatric system it's a similar kind of process these are people who have been found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder so they've engaged in some behavior but they didn't have an appreciation of what they were doing due to suffering from a mental disorder so they're found not currently responsible encounter mental disorder and are in the forensic psychiatric system if they pose an undue risk of harm to society they'll be detained in a forensic hospital if they don't they'll be released conditionally into the community so again that's a risk assessment that has to inform that decision and finally the civil psychiatric system the state has the power to actually hospitalized people against their will if they have a mental disorder and they're in need of treatment and they either pose a risk of harm to themselves or to other people so it's the risk to other people element of the civil psychiatric system that calls for again a violence risk assessment so what is the role of psychology here what can we do to help make decisions there are thousands of decisions in these different systems that are made on a daily sort of basis and a lot of the what psychology does is based on the theories that I talked about and based on research that we conduct we try to help to identify what the most useful risk factors are to help inform these decisions how we can develop methods and measures to evaluate them Jodie was talking about risk assessment tools how we can evaluate these risk assessment tools in these different methods and then finally how we can put this into practice in terms of assisting decision makers I'd like to talk about one risk factor this psychopathic personality the psychologists and psychologists at SFU we study a lot of different risk factors but psychopathy we study quite a bit and there's a good reason as I hope to demonstrate to you let me first tell you what psychopathic personality is people will be familiar with the idea of personality right how many people here have a personality okay how many people don't have a personality nobody will admit it Richard yeah so we use terms like trustworthy friendly reliable outgoing gregarious and so forth we use these terms to describe people's basic ways of relating to others when there are a lot of personality traits that are potentially harmful or dysfunctional or cause distress to a person or to others when a lot of these come together we call it a personality disorder and psychopathic personality can be construed as a personality disorder this is sometimes also called antisocial personality disorder and it is comprised of a number of different characteristics so interpersonally that is the way that people get along with others people who are highly psychopathic don't play well with others they tend to be very superficial they may try to be or appear to be charming that you can tell it's a bit disingenuous they have grandiose sense of self-worth they think that they are better than others essentially they may pathologically lie they may lie just for fun which some people have called duping delight that is they take some pleasure in fooling other people and they may also be very manipulative both from grand schemes to really small small-scale schemes and scams emotionally people who are highly psychopathic tend to have very shallow emotions they don't experience much emotion they lack remorse or guilt for the bad things that they do I mean often many of us feel bad for things that we haven't even done things that aren't our fault these folks may hurt other people and not care they may be callous and lack empathy meaning that they don't under understand or appreciate other people's situation and they don't take responsibility for their own behaviors not surprisingly these people tend to have had poor behavioral controls bad temper and to have had this since they were young and to have been involved in a host of different types of juvenile and adult crime and aggression and in terms of their lifestyle finally we see that people who are highly psychopathic tend to have a need for stimulation and a proneness to boredom a parasitic lifestyle being that they would prefer other people to pay their bills wouldn't we all but most of us do pay our own bills they lack goals they may bounce around from job to job quit their jobs move around on short-term notice and so forth they tend to be impulsive make decisions kind of without giving it much forethought and engage in irresponsible behavior like drinking and driving and so forth so this is kind of a recipe for criminal behavior people who have these personality characteristics tend to engage in crime quite often so let me give you an example of what we do with this personality construct the psychopathy checklist is an instrument developed at that other University in town I keep forgetting its name by Robert hare who's a professor emeritus there now it has 20 features or symptoms of psychopathy that he's proposed and refined over time includes standard definitions of these symptoms it's rated by professionals psychologists psychiatrists and so forth also by trained graduate students so we send our grad students into prisons and into forensic hospitals to complete this and similar measures there's strict scoring and rating instructions to try to facilitate reliability of use it includes over a two-hour interview with for instance a criminal offender in a prison this is a standardized interview again to try to facilitate reliability and consistency we review people's available file information on their progress for instance in a prison have they been behaving and so forth and a score finally is given and the higher the score the more psychopathic the question is for us does it predict violence so again let me just tell you about a research study conducted by Robert hare 728 male offenders in British prisons I'll tell you about a Canadian one shortly they looked at recidivism they found an odds ratio of 22 for violence meaning that those who were highly psychopathic the odds of violence after released from prison were 22 times greater than those who were not very psychopathic if you look here at these different bars for general recidivism that is any type of recidivism this is the group is not very psychopathic this is the group who is psychopathic 80 percent versus 40 percent if we looked at violent recidivism three percent versus 38 percent violent recidivism this is a really meaningful difference these are the sorts of things that may inform parole boards or review boards and forensic hospitals about whether people are safe to be released at the current time we conducted a similar study here in Vancouver looking at people who had been discharged from a psychiatric hospital from Riverview Hospital actually and we followed them up for a couple of years we looked at rehospitalization and so forth and we looked at again the odds of community violence after discharge as a function of low versus high scores on this psychopathy instrument we found that high scores were related to five times the odds of physical violence and to 13 times the odds of being arrested for some criminal offense that was violent in nature again this is a meaningful relationship that we can make a statement about an individual's risk for violence based on this psychological research other notable findings about psychopathy it's related to not only the occurrence of violence but how often people are violent the frequency the imminence of how quickly after release from an institution will a person be violent is related to how psychopathic they are the nature of violence we tend to see more instrumental violence that is violence used to obtain some end goal robbery for instance as opposed to emotionally based reactionary types of violence which we see in other sorts folks and to severity so how much harm to the victim people who are more psychopathic tend to hurt people to a greater degree but psychopathy is just one risk factor there's a host of other risk factors out there that people have been studying in the last ten years but there's been over 3,000 empirical scientific studies on violent behavior it's one of the most commonly studied topics when we compile these different risk factors these other risk factors we're drawing from theory we're drawing from this vast body of scientific literature and the field of violence risk assessment does this and what psychology does is try to develop standardized assessment instruments as Jodie was also describing that incorporate these scientifically supported risk factors that also stem from theory estimate the risk for future violence and importantly for us also point to promising risk reduction opportunities it's all fine and good to be able to predict or evaluate or estimate the risk for future violence but if you're not going to do anything about it why bother so now we know who's going to be violent who cares what are we going to do about it and that's actually to the credit of a lot of agencies in Canada they actually do try to do something about it the Correctional Service of Canada is a leader in the world in terms of implementing violence reduction treatment programs and many other countries have modeled their correctional system and their correctional treatment after Canada's correctional system I'll tell you just about one of the instruments that we have been working on it as a few for a number of years called the HR 20 violence risk assessment scheme so I'll tell you what HCN are stand for also H stands for historical so these are risk factors defined primarily by the fact that they happened in the past or they have something to do with experiences that people went through at some point in their life there's ten of these just a couple example of examples they include previous violence substance use problems major mental illness and psychopathy C stands for clinical this is how people are doing currently or in the very recent past over the last couple of months how have people been functioning in terms of mental functioning emotional functioning and behavioral functioning a couple of examples here there's five of these on the actual instrument Pro criminal attitudes psychotic symptoms and impulsivity a psychotic symptom is a feature of a mental illness that involves disturbance to thought or effect so for instance if a person has heard have you heard of hallucinations these are people who experience sensations that don't have any real reference in reality so hearing voices that don't exist or feeling that you have something crawling on your skin when you don't others include delusions these are irrational beliefs again that have no basis in reality believing that everybody here in this room is actually an alien some people have delusions false beliefs along these lines the R stands for risk management and again there's five of these risk factors on the instrument but just as a couple of examples we have poor treatment plans stress and lack of social support and these are estimates about how people will be functioning in the future so this instrument captures past present and future it draws 20 risk factors based on theory and research unlike some of the youth instruments this actually has been researched a lot so this is the nature of samples it's been used in these different countries with offenders forensic psychiatric patients civil psychiatric patients and with a couple of youth samples within 47 different studies and this actually always reminds me of the metal standings at the winter olympics and for those of you who are interested this is the actual medal standings at the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics and see Canada is up there at the top sadly not in the actual Olympics there's actually strong relationship between these two things which tells you one thing that correlations sometimes is meaningless there's an update to this there's now been 16 translations in two different languages and 66 different research samples comprising about 8,000 different participants so there's been a fair amount of research on this particular risk assessment instrument so does it work we looked at this question in 188 criminal offenders released from BC prisons some of them just down the road and tracked for about six years we divided the ATR 20 up into different score levels and you can see those who scored low had 10% recidivism violent recidivism the next highest scoring group had 30% 29% the next highest scoring group had 69 percent recidivism and the next highest scoring group had 93 percent recidivism so basically the more risk factors that a person has the greater the risk for violence we just need a good reliable systematic way to capture those risk factors which is what these instruments try to do and let me just skip to this violence idea of violence risk reduction and end my presentation there we can identify risk for violence relatively well but how do we reduce it violence has been with people since the beginning of time it exists across all cultures one might say it's despite being a very complex not completely well understood behavior it's a very basic fundamental human behavior it's always been with us will incarceration or punishment alone work well I think Jody made the point that with kids not likely and the same thing is true with adults in fact incarceration alone may slightly increase recidivism now I wouldn't advocate that we remove all prisons but what I'm saying is that if we do incarcerate people if we don't do anything else if we don't provide some kind of intervention or treatment opportunities it will not decrease recidivism in fact it may actually slightly increase it there's been a lot of work then by psychologists working in the correctional systems and so forth in Canada on what could be called psychologically informed violence reduction and these are risk management treatment programs that focus on risk factors so if we know based on some of the research that I showed you that substance abuse is important that pro criminal attitudes are important to know about that certain types of mental illnesses or certain types of personality dispositions are important risk factors then why don't we design treatments that actually address these to try to reduce the level of the risk factors it's a simple principle it's not that easy to do in practice but it's a simple principle a lot of the programs that have been shown to be effective our structured programs based on social learning principles so I talked about social learning theory at the beginning of my presentation social learning theory can also inform risk management or correctional or violence reduction treatment programs by for instance reinforcing pro-social behavior in prisons and by reinforcing alternative problem-solving skills so non-violence problem-solving skills this may give people the opportunities to practice more pro-social ways of interacting with other people one of the important things that these programs do is to provide nonviolent problem-solving skills a lot of people who are violent are violent one of the reasons is that they've grown up thinking that that's the way you solve problems you act violently if you get into a difficult interpersonal situation one way to get out of it is to act violently this they may have learned this from observing parents from observing peers they may do this because they're impulsive and have a bad temper but if we can teach them alternative ways to deal with difficult situations that could reduce their risk other types of common approaches include anger management or substance use treatment we know that these are both important risk factors and so a number of violence reduction programs and treatment programs include a focus on these risk factors as well so if we do this we actually can reduce violence there's been many many studies of what are called psychologically informed correctional treatment programs and on average it shows that they reduce recidivism by about twenty to thirty percent now you might say yeah that's okay it's not that much but remember that's kind of the estimates that there are two million violent crimes in Canada in year if we look down to the US you can just basically multiply that that by ten or more because they have ten times the people and they have a higher violent crime rate we're talking if you look at this over large numbers of people this could actually translate into many fewer people being victimized and I think that's something that we could probably all agree is is a good thing so I think with that I'm going to end and leave the last ten minutes or so for questions to any of us on the panel okay thank you very much for your attention I remind you to discretion anymore but please fill out your little report cards for us because you want to run the series again next year we enjoy having your feedback to help us make this bigger and better event next year so please do that and any questions for Kevin or anyone not too long ago I saw on the TV they released one of the sex offender and what when they interviewed him he said it didn't need the treatment so he refused to take it and because he served his sentence they allowed him to release into society and all the people who were assessing him they knew he is a very high risk offender and my question would be is is that anything they can do to do research on it or how to Kim kind of solution to it not really happening in the future because if the original problem the psychological problem is did not solve it's most likely going to offend and it's more likely it's going to repeat itself and it's clearly on his interview I'm not a psychologist such a study a few years and at but it was clearly in his perception he sees nothing wrong you know what he is doing so that's it's a great point you raised another good point as well when people get when people are released from prison they may be released under a host of different conditions they may get early parole they may be released not until what's called warrant expiry date which is the very end of the sentence after which time society actually has no right to require any treatment because they have literally served their sentence but the other point you raised was essentially a question of treatment motivation and insight into treatment needs and this is those are actually both risk factors and for people who either don't have insight into the fact that they may have a need for treatment or that they have from either sexually violent or other types of violent tendencies they're more likely to act violently in the future and again there's not much that we can do because well treatment can't be forced on people in a prison for instance the person may get out of prison earlier if they go to treatment and so some exposure to treatment and some potential motivation for why this could help why this could help you for instance you may live the rest of your life in the community and not have to come back to prison could be one way to start motivating people but if people don't feel they really want to change it's hard to do something about it what you do find with a lot of people who are in prison they don't want to be in prison and they will a lot of people will try to do something so that they can live in the community without coming back to prison um it's my understanding that individuals who score highly on the PCL are don't really benefit from treatment so what do you think we should do with these people then well that's probably one of the hardest questions there is so thanks for asking it I'm just teasing it's a really that's a really good question and it's actually we don't know if people who are highly psychopathic are not treatable we just simply don't know that because there's not been good excuse me there's not been good research into that question there's been a couple of really recent studies that have shown with increased doses of treatment so with more frequent treatment we actually may see the similar responses in people who are highly psychopathic in terms of reduction in crime and violence so it certainly it would not make sense at all to stop trying and it would not make sense at all to take a kind of punitive lock people up forever based on their personality approach so I think that with kind of further research into potentially effective ways of treating people based on what we know is effective more generally we may be able to see some crime reduction in people who are highly psychopathic as well there's a couple of approaches that we probably shouldn't take with people who are highly psychopathic there's a type of violence reduction program called empathy training and for people who may lack the capacity to feel empathy it would probably not be a good expenditure of resources so the approaches have to take other sorts of shapes like nonviolent problem solving and so forth you

Cesar Sullivan

29 thoughts on “The Psychology of Violent Behaviour

  1. ๐ˆ๐ฅ๐ฅ ๐ ๐ข๐ฏ๐ž ๐ฒ๐จ๐ฎ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐ฉ๐ฌ๐ฒ๐œ๐ก๐จ๐ฅ๐จ๐ ๐ฒ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ฏ๐ข๐จ๐ฅ๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ž ๐ก๐š๐ง๐๐ฌ๐จ๐ฆ๐ž ๐ฆ๐จ๐ญ๐ก๐ž๐ซ๐Ÿ๐ฎ๐œ๐ค๐ž๐ซ! ๐˜๐จ๐ฎ ๐ซ๐ž๐š๐๐ฒ? ๐‡๐ž๐ซ๐ž ๐ ๐จ๐ž๐ฌ! ๐๐š๐ฒ ๐š๐ญ๐ญ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐ง๐จ๐ฐ! ๐‰๐„๐€๐‹๐Ž๐”๐’๐˜! ๐„๐๐•๐˜! ๐†๐‘๐„๐„๐ƒ! ๐‹๐”๐’๐“! ๐–๐‘๐€๐“๐‡! ๐†๐‹๐”๐“๐“๐Ž๐๐˜! ๐๐‘๐ˆ๐ƒ๐„! ๐‡๐š๐ฏ๐ž ๐ˆ ๐ฆ๐ข๐ฌ๐ฌ๐ž๐ ๐š๐ง๐ฒ๐ญ๐ก๐ข๐ง๐ ?๐€๐ง๐ ๐š๐ง๐ฒ๐ญ๐ก๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ญ๐จ ๐Ÿ๐ฎ๐ฅ๐Ÿ๐ข๐ฅ๐ฅ ๐จ๐ง๐ž ๐จ๐ซ ๐š๐ฅ๐ฅ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž๐ฌ๐ž ๐‡๐”๐Œ๐€๐ ๐ง๐ž๐ž๐๐ฌ!

  2. I was surprised at a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder handed down as if from on high by the dumbest man I ever met in a clinical situation. He asked me if I had any problems that bothered me on a day to day basis and I told him that I had terrifying flashbacks of Vietnam. He then told me that this condition was very common and treatable. Then I told him that the problem was that I had never been to Vietnam. I guess that he thought that he got the last laugh with his diagnosis.

  3. I go to certain bars in Toronto and also take the subway train and witness physical altercations such as bar fights street brawls and public disturbances like these in general, I believe violent people are both stupid,psychotic, angry and think hurting others physically is the answer.

  4. Audience reacting like this is a stand up comedy. Clearly the majority havenโ€™t experienced violence firsthand. Smh. Greetings from South America.

  5. In America, in 1990, ADHD was the Favorite Diagnosis when a boy acted out at school because suddenly he was put in school and made to sit at a desk and ask to pee. In 2000 if a woman and probably a man became angry or insubortnation when the paycheck did not come in. Then the person was labeled as Bipolar for getting angry Hmm! We have been taught that normal responses to Abnormal situation = Crazy. What is Crazy is government Control and False Alligations on an Innocent Population and so many people that assume that what we are told is True. Really good people are Profiled as Bad because of Gossip, Socio Economics, and False Information by unreliable source. Many distractions and lies will be a set up for most do to the Hive mindset. How do you know that the North Korean Leader is Real? Because" they" said so. Have you personally been to Korea and met this person? Probably not.Who is They? They are the Government and if Alians do exist I am pretty sure they are being held by a Government. I suggest that anyone intelligent enough look up the definition of Critical Thinking Skills and I would suggest you do not use Google definitions if you want a answer based on facts.

  6. Related sciences have many theories regarding the cause of criminal behavior .and its true there are a few major factors in making of a criminal and also the fact that few are born sadistic ,violent and so on. But the major cause in all major causes are poor and irresponsible pillars of a society :-government, than community and family…. People who have lived in corrupt riddled countries are much more prone to break the law or disregard it without feeling bad at all! Most of us simply need to be educated and feel related to act accordingly . its vital to avoid unfit individuals in position of power in a crime conscious society. You will be amazed how much it contributes to create criminals as much as other harms done by them . most of which is irreversible unfortunately!

  7. Violence does go with poverty, but psychopathy doesn't.ย  He even casually admits that the numbers of cases of violence exactly correlate with the economy, you could probably plot them against the Dow Jones Industrial Average.ย  Most psychopaths don't commit obvious violence, they just destroy people, their livelihoods, homes, relationships and childhoods.ย  They lurk in respectable professions.

  8. Violence on any scale will inevitably draw reactions of "How can somebody do such a thing?!?!", or "What is wrong with people?!". I've come to realise that very few of the people who ask these questions actually want an answer. Rhetoric for the sake of social commentary is not conducive to actually finding answers to these very real questions. After all, we're all human. Whether you teach Sunday school to deaf kids, or bury them in your crawl space, the same central control system and data bank exists in both. So yes, I often ask the same questions when the behaviours of others don't align with my own logical sense of reasoning or moral compass, but there is no pretence of rhetoric in my questions – I am genuinely curious in knowing more about the human condition and how two brains, which in appearance are identical, can be universes apart. It's all so extraordinarily fascinating and I'm so excited to be living in an age where we are learning more and more about ourselves and our behaviours every day.

  9. youre dead wrong! and just because u have ur own experience..ud ont speak for others! if the brain is powerful enough to act out on suidcidal thoughts..dont tell me mentla illness doesnt exist!! how despicabl e of u!

  10. Check my playlist: " university Lectures " on my YouTube channel. ๐Ÿ˜€

  11. Some folks are tired of reporting crimes when nothing is done about it except for the Perpetrator getting even, when you turn him/her, causing the stats. being skewed..

  12. video describes psychology of violent behaviour and many other factors related to violence Certain personality traits, such as psychopathic personality, also have implications for violence, as do procriminal attitudes, and alcohol and drug problems,he also discusses about Violence in many forms is preventable. There is a strong relationship between levels of violence and modifiable factors such as concentrated poverty, income and gender inequality, the harmful use of alcohol, and the absence of safe, stable, and nurturing relationships between children and parents. Strategies addressing the underlying causes of violence can be effective in preventing violence

  13. I really dislike the term 'mental illness.' I don't believe such a thing exists and there are no known tests to show chemical imbalances in the brain. It's all a hoax manufactured by Big Pharma to make billions of dollars. I've been 'diagnosed' with bipolar disorder and I can tell you 100% that I can control my anger if I put all of my focus and attention on doing so. Psychotropics work against that. At least in my case.
    Nonetheless, great video, very informative.

  14. The graph at 23:00 lacks crucial information. The x axis should be labelled to indicate that low and high refer to the patient's score on the psychopathy rubric. Even more useful would be an actual score for comparison, and the name of the test in question, which would let a skeptic check the experiment for criticism or look it up out of curiosity.

  15. He mentioned empathy training not being effective, but he didn't talk about the risk of psychopaths getting better at pretending to be empathetic! There have been findings of psychopaths getting worse (i.e. more powerful, just as evil) from it.

  16. Do diligent and hard research as you beg God to forgive you. Also warn others to do the same. Make this your entire life to warn and be warned in this way. You don't have time for the idle entertainment of this world. You must come to know the whole truth to be saved from the wrath of God. You have been warned! Now, get to work and quit playing around.

  17. You must assume you are wrong and have false ways that God hates unless (or until) you have perfectly known God through His Spirit. You must be perfect or you will not escape the hell-fire wrath of God. So, to avoid the coming judgment, dedicate your life to finding out what is wrong with every religion.

  18. The Media is the main cause of violence worldwide I think……. kids grow watching power rangers and and such this tells the audience that violence can save the day

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